Types of Lighting

Types of Lighting

Incandescent Lamps

Tungsten Halogen Lamps

Linear Fluorescent Tubes

Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL)

HID ( high intensity discharge )

 

Incandescent Lamps

Incandescent lamps are one of the oldest and most well known types of lamp. Electric current passes through the filament and heats it to a certain temperature to produce light. Available in a multitude of shapes, sizes, wattages and voltages they offer particular qualities of light to suit a large variety of applications. Incandescent lamps are cheaper than other types of lamp such as halogen and fluorescent but they have a short life expectancy of around 1000 hours and are not energy efficient.

From the 1st September 2009 the European Union started to introduce the following bans, which will gradually see most types of incandescent lamp phased out:

 Date
Lamp
September 2009
None clear incandescent ie opal, pearl and frosted light bulbs.Clear incandescent lamps of 100W and above.Compact fluorescent lamps with a Class B efficiency rating.Lamps with a class F and G energy rating.Halogen lamps with a class D and E energy rating such as 75W halogens (excluding lamps with G9 and R7 caps).

September 2010
75W clear incandescent lamps.60W halogen lamps with a class D and E energy rating.
September 2011
60W clear incandescent lamps.40W halogen lamps with a class D and E energy rating.
September 2012
25W and 40W clear incandescent lamps.25W halogen lamps with a class D and E energy rating.
September 2013
Lamps with cap bases S14, S15 and S19.
September 2016
Lamps with a Class C energy rating or below (excluding lamps with G9 and R7 caps)

 

 Pros of using Incandescent Lamps
 Cons of using Incandescent Lamps
Cheap to buy
Don’t last long
Excellent colour rendering (CRI)
Not energy efficient
Available in many different voltages
Not bright enough
No need for additional starters or controllers
Obsolete
Fully dimmable
Poor at directing the light

Most Popular Types of Incandescent Lamp

  • General lighting service or GLS lamp with 60W being the most popular.
  • Candle lamps.
  • Rough service lamps.
  • Pygmy lamps.
  • Golf ball lamps.
  • Reflector lamps.
  • Linear strip lights.

Tungsten Halogen Lamps

A halogen lamp is another type of incandescent lamp. A tungsten filament is sealed into a compact transparent capsule. It is then filled with gas and a small amount of a halogen substance such as bromine or iodine. The mixture of the two produces a chemical reaction called halogen cycle. This process increases the life expectancy of a halogen lamp and makes the lamp shine brighter. A halogen lamp operates its filament at higher temperatures than other types of gas filled lamp without reducing its life expectancy.

Halogen lamps are designed to give a compact, high output, crisp white light. They are more efficient than standard incandescent lamps and smaller in physical size. Until technology advanced in compact fluorescent and LED lighting, halogen was the most popular choice for accent, display and general lighting by both domestic and commercial users.

Originally tungsten halogen lamps were only available in low voltage and required a low voltage transformer to power them, adding costs to a downlight installation.  With the emergence of the 50W mains GU10 halogen in the late 1990s they quickly became the number one choice of lamp for downlights.  Although halogen lamps last up to 6 times longer than standard incandescent lamps they are an aging technology. They are being over taken by compact fluorescent and LED lamps which offer a far greater life expectancy and offer 80-90% energy savings.

Pros of using Tungsten Halogen
 Cons of using Tungsten Halogen
Crisp white light
Aging technology, surpassed by LED
Cheap to buy
Short life expectancy compared to CFL or LED
Excellent colour rendering (CRI)
Not energy efficient
Last up to 10 times longer than incandescent
Could eventually get phased out along with incandescent
Available in a variety of beam angles
More efficient than standard incandescent
 
Compact physical size
 
Fully dimmable
 

 

 Colour Options
Colour temperature 2700K extra warm white colour 827.
Colour temperature 3000K warm white colour 830.
Colour temperature 4000K cool white colour 840.

  Most Popular Types of Halogen Lamp

  • MR16 mains halogen lamp with GU10 cap and aluminium reflector – available in 20W, 35W and 50W
  • MR16 low voltage halogen lamp with G5.3 cap and dichroic reflector – available in 20W, 35W and 50W
  • Halogen energy saving lamps similar to the above two types and available in mains and low voltage
  • Halogen G9 and G4 capsule lamps – available in 25W, 40W and 60W
  • Linear halogen with R7s cap – available in 100W, 150W, 200W, 300W and 500W

Halogen Lamp Options & Beam Angles

Halogens are available in a variety of beam angles. Beam angles are used to direct or distribute the light of a lamp in a downlight. A lamp with a 12 degree beam angle is called a spot and has a very narrow beam; this would be used to light a single object such as an ornament. A halogen lamp with a 50 degree beam angle is called a very wide flood; this would be used to evenly spread the light across a room. Here are the four main types of beam angle available:

  • Spot 10 or 12 degree beam angle
  • Flood 25 degree beam angle
  • Wide flood 36 degree beam angle
  • Very wide flood 50 degree beam angle

Below is an example of a 12 degree beam angle using a 50W halogen lamp.

The average height of a room is 2.4 metres, using a 12 degree beam angle you would get an approximate 0.5 metre spread of light at floor level.

Linear Fluorescent Tubes

Fluorescent lamps or fluorescent tubes are gas discharge lamps that use electricity to energise mercury vapour. The energised mercury atoms produce a short wave ultraviolet light that causes the phosphor to fluoresce, this reaction produces light.

Fluorescent lamps require an additional ballast to control them; the ballast regulates the flow of current through the lamp. There are two main types of ballast; electronic and magnetic. Electronic ballasts, also known as a high frequency or HF have a number of advantages over magnetic, also known as switch start. The main advantages of electronic over magnetic are:

  • An increase in lamp life of around 40% thus reducing maintenance costs.
  • Energy savings of 20-30% due to the efficacy of operation.
  • No additional fluorescent starters are required, further reducing maintenance costs.
  • HF ballasts don’t make the lamp flicker when they are turned on.

Linear fluorescent tubes create a more diffused type of light. Their high energy efficiency levels (particularly when used with HF ballasts) make them ideal for warehouses, offices and public buildings.

Pros of using Fluorescent Tubes
Cons of using Fluorescent Tubes
Excellent colour rendering (CRI)
Classed as hazardous waste due to the mercury
High efficiency
Not suitable for display lighting
Cost effective
Not dimmable unless used with expensive dimmable ballasts
Available in a variety of lengths and wattages
Older T12 fluorescents are being phased out

 

 Fluorescent Tube Colour Options
Colour Temperature
Appearance
Reference
2700K
Extra warm white (known as interna)
Colour 827
3000K
Warm white
Colour 830
3500K
White
Colour 835
4000K
Cool White
Colour 840
6500K
Daylight
Colour 860 or 865

Halophosphate or Triphosphor?

Older fluorescent tubes used to use a Halophosphate coating which is cheaper to produce than Triphoshor and therefore cheaper to buy. Halophosphate is an aging lamp technology that has been over taken by Triphosphor. Triphosphor has many advantages over Halophosphate including a brighter better quality of light, longer life expectancy and they contain less mercury making them more environmentally friendly. After around 4,000 hours of operation Halophosphate tubes start to fade; they drop to 86% of their original brightness and then down to 74% for their remaining life. Triphosphor tubes only drop to 96% after the same time period and remain at the same level for their remaining life.

As of February 2010 the EU legislation came into force banning the production of Halophosphate tubes.

 Compact Fluorescent Lamps
Compact fluorescent lamps or CFLs operate in the same way as fluorescent tubes previously mentioned. They were first introduced as a low energy alternative to incandescent GLS light bulbs, lasting around 15 times longer and using 82% less energy. Within 20 years they have almost fully taken over from incandescent.To comply with Part L1 of the Building Regulations, all new dwellings must install a fraction of lighting (usually one in three) that will only take a low energy lamp. This rules out a number of fittings including any with bayonet cap or Edison screw connections as they can be easily replaced with incandescent as soon as the Building inspectors back is turned. The lightings fittings must be a dedicated low energy fitting. Another requirement of the Part L1 Building Regulations is that low energy lamps must have a luminous efficacy of at least 40 lumens per circuit watt ie most compact fluorescent and LED lamps. A full range of low energy Part L1 approved light fittings is available via this website such as 2D bulkheads and low energy smart floods. Another way of achieving Part L1 compliance is to install lighting controllers such as time lag switches or occupancy detectors; these will ensure that light isn’t wasted when no one is present.Low energy downlights that comply with Part L1 are also available as they will only take 9W or 11W GU10 CFL lamp. Due to the design of the CFL downlight, a standard halogen lamp will not fit properly inside it. The 11W GU10 CFL lamps lasts around 5 times longer than halogen and offers energy savings of 80%.Compact fluorescent lamps have good energy saving properties but have many short comings such as they are not dimmable and most of them are bulkier than their incandescent or halogen counter parts making them impossible to fit into existing fittings. Compact fluorescents lamps are being taken over by a more advance lighting technology called LED (light emitted diode) which offers even further energy savings.
Pros
Cons
Longer lasting, reducing maintenance costs
Bulkier than incandescent
Cheap to buy compared to LED
Not many available in dimmable
Great value for money
Not as bright as their incandescent equivalents
A wide range of shapes and wattages to choose from
Takes time to warm up unless used with a HF ballast
Compact Fluorescent Lamp Colour Options
Colour Temperature
Appearance
Reference
2700K
Extra warm white (known as interna)
Colour 827
3000K
Warm white
Colour 830
3500K
White
Colour 835
4000K
Cool White
Colour 840
6500K
Daylight
Colour 860 or 865
Lamp Options

2D lamps are available in 2 pin GR8 and 4 pin GR10q, in 16W, 21W, 28W, 38W and 55W.

Spiral low energy and GLS shape CFL lamps available in 5W, 7W, 9W, 11W, 15W, 18W and 20W.

Candle shaped CFL lamps available in 5W, 7W, 9W and 11W.

Reflector CFL lamps available in 5W, 7W. 9W, 11W, 15W and 20W.

GU10 CFL lamps available in 7W, 9W, 11W and 13W.

2 pin caps include G23, G24d-1, G24d-2, G24d-3.

4 pin caps include 2G11, 2G7, G24q-1, G24q-2, G24q-3, GX24q-2, GX24q-3 and GX24q-4.

High Intensity Discharge lamps

High intensity discharge lamps are Metal Halide (HQI), Mercury (MBFU) and High Pressure Sodium (SON). These lamps are generally used in warehouses due to their long life expectancy and the lack of maintenance that they require. They are usually placed very high up in light fittings called low bays or high bays. This type of lamp is used in many out applications such as floodlights and amenity lights. They offer outstanding efficiency and long life, each type has its own distinct qualities:

Metal Halide
Mercury
Sodium
Life expectancy:
3,500 -20,000 hours
12,000 -24,000 hours
12,000 -55,000 hours
Colour temperature
3000 -6000K
3500 -4000K
2000K
Colour rendering index (CRI)
65-93 CRI
42-52 CRI
25 CRI
Efficiency (lumen per watt):
68-100 lm/W
19-63 lm/W
66-150 lm/W

 

Colour Options of HID Lamps
Colour Temperature
Appearance
Reference
3000K
Warm white
Colour 830
3500K
White
Colour 835
4000K
Cool white
Colour 840
6000K
Daylight
Colour 860 or 865

 

 

 

#bulbs #halogen #hid #incandescent #lamps #tubes #tungsten

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